Using an object literal as a simple means to storing key-value pairs is common place within JavaScript. However, an object literal is not a true hash map and therefore poses potential liabilities if used in the wrong manner. While JavaScript may not offer native hash maps (at least not cross-browser), there is a superior alternative to object literals to capture the desired functionality without the pitfalls.

The Problem with Object Literals

The problem resides in the prototype chain of object literals as the properties and methods inherited from the Object prototype can clash with the mechanisms used to assert the existence of a key. Take for instance the toString method, checking the existence of a key with the same name using the in operator will result in a false positive:

var map = {};
'toString' in map; // true

This happens because the in operator looks up the object’s prototype chain to find inherited properties, in this case the toString method. To resolve this, the hasOwnProperty method was conceived which only looks for the existence of a specified key as a direct property of an object:

var map = {};
map.hasOwnProperty('toString'); // false

This works fine until you encounter a key named “hasOwnProperty”. Overwriting this method would cause further attempts to invoke the hasOwnProperty method to result in unexpected behavior, most likely an error depending on the new value:

var map = {};
map.hasOwnProperty = 'foo';
map.hasOwnProperty('hasOwnproperty'); // TypeError

A quick fix for this is leveraging a generic object literal, one that hasn’t been tampered with, and executing it’s hasOwnProperty method in the context of your hash map:

var map = {};
map.hasOwnProperty = 'foo';
{}, 'hasOwnproperty'); // true

This works without any issues, but nevertheless, the object still imposes restrictions on how it can be utilized. For instance, every time you wanted to enumerate the properties of the object within a for ... in loop, you would need to filter out the properties of the prototype chain:

var map = {};
var has = {}.hasOwnProperty;

for (var key in map) {
    if (, key)) {
        // do something

This can become a bit tedious after awhile. Thankfully, there is a better way.

Bare Objects

The secret to creating a true hash map is loosing the prototype all together and the baggage that comes with it. To do this we can take advantage of the Object.create method introduced in ES5. What’s unique about this method is that you can explicitly define the prototype for a new object. For example, defining a plain object literal with a little more verbosity:

var obj = {};
// is equivalent to:
var obj = Object.create(Object.prototype);

In addition to defining a prototype of your choosing, you can also forgo a prototype completely by passing a null value in place of a prototype object:

var map = Object.create(null);

map instanceof Object; // false
Object.prototype.isPrototypeOf(map); // false
Object.getPrototypeOf(map); // null

These bare (aka dictionary) objects are ideal for hash maps because the absence of a [[Prototype]] removes the risk of name conflicts. Since the object is completely void of any methods or properties, it will resist any type of coercion, attempting to do so would result in an error:

var map = Object.create(null);
map + ""; // TypeError: Cannot convert object to primitive value

There is no primitive value or string representation because bare objects are not intended to be used for anything other than a key-value store, plain and simple. This serves to rationalize its distinct purpose. Keep in mind that the hasOwnProperty method is also lost to the bare object, which is okay because the in operator now works without any exceptions:

var map = Object.create(null);
'toString' in map; // false

Better yet, those tedious for ... in loops become much simpler. We can finally write a loop the way it was meant to be:

var map = Object.create(null);

for (var key in map) {
    // do something

Despite the differences, for all intents and purposes, it still behaves much like an object literal. Properties can be accessed using dot or bracket notation, the object can be stringified, and the object can still be employed as the context of a method from the Object prototype:

var map = Object.create(null);

Object.defineProperties(map, {
    'foo': {
        value: 1,
        enumerable: true
    'bar': {
        value: 2,
        enumerable: false
});; // 1
map['bar']; // 2

JSON.stringify(map); // {"foo":1}

{}, 'foo'); // true
{}, 'bar'); // false

Even different methods of type checking will indicate what you would expect from an object literal:

var map = Object.create(null);

typeof map; // object
{}; // [object Object]
{}; // Object {}

All this makes it simple to replace object literals with bare objects and have them integrate nicely into a pre-existing application without forcing wide spread changes.


In the context of simple key-value stores, a bare object is the clear successor to object literals, helping to alleviate the quirks with a clearly defined purpose. For more fully-featured data structures, ES6 will introduce native hash maps in the form of the Map and Set objects, among others. Until then, or even after, you should look to bare objects for all your basic hash map needs.